Semra Bilaçeroğlu* Pages 133 - 139 ( 7 )
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation, hyperinflation and reduced gas exchange that lead to progressive dyspnea. Pulmonary rehabilitation, lifestyle changes, pharmacotherapy, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive ventilation and surgical therapeutic approaches are the basic management strategies.Purpose: In the last 15 years, various bronchoscopic therapeutic modalities have emerged for severe COPD. The aim of this review is to summarize the effects of these bronchoscopic treatments compared with lung rehabilitation and pharmacological therapies. Methods: A PubMed search for the eligible studies and reviews on interventional bronchoscopy and COPD has been conducted. Results: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (LVR) techniques are targeted to reduce hyperinflation. The efficacy of reversible valve implantation has been confirmed in several randomized controlled trials. It provides clinical benefit in the absence of interlobar collateral ventilation. Nonblocking bronchoscopic LVR with coils, thermal vapor or sealants is independent of collateral ventilation but has not been studied sufficiently. Partially irreversible coil implantation leads to parenchymal compression while irreversible LVR with thermal vapor or sealants induce an inflammatory reaction. Targeted lung denervation ablates parasympathetic pulmonary nerves in COPD for sustainable bronchodilation, and liquid nitrogen metered cryospray destroys hyperplastic goblet cells and excessive submucous glands in the central airways to induce mucosal regeneration in chronic bronchitis. Conclusion: The best-examined bronchoscopic LVR method is the valve therapy. The data from the other modalities are still limited. Further studies are required to select the patients that will optimally benefit from a particular treatment and to predict and treat the procedure-related complications.
Chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cryotherapy, emphysema, interventional bronchoscopy, lung volume reduction, targeted lung denervation.
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Health Sciences University, Izmir Dr. Suat Seren Training and Research Hospital for Thoracic Medicine and Surgery, Izmir